Since the 1960s, the belief that government funding of primary research would lead to the discovery of marketable applied sciences has lost credibility. Probabilist Nassim Taleb argues that nationwide research packages that implement the notions of serendipity and convexity via frequent trial and error usually tend to lead to helpful improvements than research that aims to achieve specific outcomes. It usually encompasses a associated argument, technological autonomy, which asserts that technological progress follows a natural development and cannot be prevented. Social constructivists argue that applied sciences follow no pure development, and are formed by cultural values, laws, politics, and financial incentives. Modern scholarship has shifted towards an evaluation of sociotechnical systems, “assemblages of issues, people, practices, and meanings”, trying at the worth judgments that shape technology. The humanities philosophy of technology is anxious with the “which means of technology for, and its influence on, society and culture”.
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